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Answer three of the following questions with a proofread and edited essay. Include as much
detail as possible, but keep the essay concise (250-350 words).
1) As one of the earliest provinces of Rome, Spain was part of the many changes which impacted the Empire between ~100 BCE and 500 CE. Identify the major changes, and describe in particular how they affected the Iberian Peninsula.
2) The Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 711 marks the beginning of a new chapter
in Iberian history. What was new about al-Andalus? What features of Spanish life and culture were preserved from before the Arab conquest?
3) Abd al-Rahman III was arguably the most important ruler in the 700+ year history of al-Andalus. What marked his reign as a success? What were the limits of his achievements?
4) Hegemony over the entire Iberian Peninsula was a common ambition of many would-be rulers, but very few, if any, achieved it. Describe the ambitions of at least two rulers who aspired to rule all of the Peninsula. To what degree did they succeed? What obstacles stood in the way of their ambitions?
5) The veneration of relics and the challenge of pilgrimage were two of the major features
of medieval Christianity. Why were these such powerful parts of the Christian faith? Why do they matter to the history of Spain?
6) Explain the significance of the French monastery of Cluny to the history of the Iberian Peninsula. What was the origin of the relationship? How did the relationship impact life in Spain? How did Spain impact life at Cluny?