Introductory Pharmacology Question (Short answer Response):
Nancy, who is 50 years old, visits her optometrist to have her eyes checked, as she concerns that her father was diagnosed with chronic open-angle glaucoma in his 50s. On examination, Nancy is confirmed to have open-angle glaucoma with an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in her left eye. Nancy is prescribed timolol eye drops (0.5% solution) and recommended to have one drop in the affected eye twice a day.
A. Identify 2 risk factors that Nancy has for glaucoma development. (2 marks)
B. Timolol is a β-adrenoceptor antagonist. What is its mechanism of action for the treatment of glaucoma? (3 marks)
C. Explain why prior to prescribing timolol eye drops, the optometrist asks Nancy if she has a history of asthma and if she is using a β-adrenoceptor antagonist to treat cardiovascular disease. (3 marks)
D. If timolol is contraindicated, different classes of antiglaucoma drugs can be used. List another autonomic drug class that can be an alternative to treat glaucoma and briefly explain its mechanism of action.