Human Resource Management

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Which element of motivation is a measure of intensity or drive?

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Maslow’s theory is a hierarchy because ________.

needs are always truly satisfied

needs are satisfied sequentially

According to Maslow, a person stranded on a desert island would ________ before he or she worried about making weapons.

establish his or her status on the island


Maslow believes that higher–order needs ________.

________ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.

Self–actualization Need Theory

Belongingness Need Theory

Workers with a Theory Y point of view would be likely to ________.

love their job more than the money they make

just want to collect a paycheck

avoid work unless rewards were high

avoid responsibility for their actions

According to Herzberg, which kind of characteristics are most closely associated with job dissatisfaction?

extrinsic things that come from the outside

intrinsic things that come from within themselves

According to Herzberg’s Motivation–Hygiene theory, ________ are associated with job satisfaction.

Which three needs are recognized in McClelland’s three–needs theory?

power, comfort, stimulation

achievement, power, affiliation

security, self–interest, affiliation

achievement, power, security

Which of the following suggests that humans have an innate desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships?

Which is the best summary of goal–setting theory?

Easy goals make for happier employees.

Specific goals increase performance.

Always make your goals a bit higher than you can reach.

Goals make no difference in performance.

The job characteristics model (JCM) maintains that ________ is critical to motivating workers.

The JCM contends that these dimensions are required for a high level of motivation among workers. Meaningful work refers to works require various skills, clear task identity and significant jobs.

autonomy, feedback, good management

meaningful work, autonomy, independence

meaningful work, autonomy, feedback

high pay, autonomy, feedback

A theory that suggests that employees compare their inputs and outputs from a job to the ratio of relevant others is known as ________.

Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned with ________.

comparing their rewards to those of others

making enough money to live on

employers sharing profits

justice for all people who work

In equity theory, a worker’s “self” category compares a person’s outcomes–to–input ratio with ________.

the person’s own standards and expectations

the standards and expectations of other workers

In equity theory, an underrewarded individual ________ the work he or she does.

In equity theory, procedural justice is concerned with which of the following?

comparing fairness between different organizations

comparing output–to–input ratios among individuals

determining how honest one’s boss is

determining how fair the system is

In expectancy theory, a person may have the ability to reach a certain goal but lack motivation because ________.

the person’s desire to reach the goal is too strong

the person has no strong desire to reach the goal

The key to expectancy theory is that an individual’s goals ________.

are not too high and not too low

match the rewards provided by the organization

match the goals of fellow workers and superiors

 If salespeople in John’s company meet their sales goals for the month, they are given an all–expense–paid trip to a Denver Broncos football game. Football is not one of John’s favorite sports, and the Denver Broncos are definitely not John’s favorite team. John’s performance might be influenced by the ________ part of Vroom’s expectancy theory.

effort–performance linkage

performance–reward linkage

Expectancy theory and goal–setting theory align well with American workers because American culture places a strong emphasis on ________.

collectivism and achievement

low power distance and high uncertainty avoidance

individualism and high power distance

achievement and individualism

 ________ allow companies to accommodate the needs of workers with nonstandard family situations.

Expanded workweeks and job sharing

Flextime, compressed workweeks, and job sharing

Flextime and expanded workweeks

Which of the following is NOT a common way that employee recognition programs recognize worker achievements?

added worker responsibilities

a handwritten note of thanks

a public announcement of achievement

Acme Corporation (Scenario)


Acme Corporation’s management feels that employees could be more motivated by their jobs. The jobs were enriched earlier and some improvements were seen in motivation.


To increase the motivation through enrichment, Acme decides to increase the meaningfulness of the work. This might be done by ________.

giving workers more feedback

increasing autonomy of workers

giving workers less feedback

Acme managers explained how important their product was to the world economy. Which core dimension in the job characteristics model is this?

The Acme managers developed a program that allows the employees to have a large degree of freedom carrying out their jobs. Which core dimension are they providing?

Application of Early Theories of Motivation (Scenario)


Three managers work at the Pabco Company. Aaron really “cracks the whip” on his employees and firmly believes in strict controls and punishment for those employees who do not perform to company expectations.


Zach has very few controls and believes that as long as people know what their objectives are, they will exercise self–control and self–direction.


Susan has been trying to improve working conditions and manager–employee relations to increase the level of productivity in her department.


Zach is what type of manager?

Susan was trying to use what type of Herzberg factors to increase productivity?

Zach was using which type of Herzberg factors to increase productivity levels?




Essay questions:

Please read the case application “Bringing the real world to life — Google searching for? and answer the following questions:


a.       Google is doing a lot for its employees, but obviously not enough to retain several of its talented employees. Using what you’ve learned from studying the various motivation theories, what does this situation tell you about employee motivation?



b.       What do you think is Google’s biggest challenge in keeping employees motivated?


Talented and educated employees of Google helps in meeting its extraordinary opportunities.

c.        If you were managing a team of Google employees, how would you keep them motivated?


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