Explain the following concepts: 1) collision resistance, 2) second preimage resistance, and 3) preimage resistance.
2. Explain what is unforgeability under a chosen-message attack.
3. Assume party A is communicating with party B. They have shared a secret key K for a MAC algorithm. Now, B receives a pair of a message and a tag (T, M). It checks that indeed T = MAC(K, M). What does this check tell B?
4. Explain which security property of cryptographic hash functions makes them a good choice of protecting passwords.
5. What are the differences between passwords and (cryptographic) keys?